The Power of Geography: Ten Maps That Reveal the Future of Our World - The Much-Anticipated Sequel to the Global Bestseller Prisoners of Geography

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The Power of Geography: Ten Maps That Reveal the Future of Our World - The Much-Anticipated Sequel to the Global Bestseller Prisoners of Geography

The Power of Geography: Ten Maps That Reveal the Future of Our World - The Much-Anticipated Sequel to the Global Bestseller Prisoners of Geography

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Prisoners of Geography” с актуализация към 2020 г., и фокус към държави с по-слаб акцент от предната книга, или с нови такива. Стилът е все така журналистически достъпен, на места с размах, на места с хумор, макар на моменти вдъхновението му май да се поизчерпва. Turkey: Former ruler of the Ottoman Empire which controlled the Middle East and North Africa, it now rules a country primarily in minor Asia with a large percentage of its people living in the European capital Istanbul. It has a large Kurdish minority in Turkey and surrounding countries and uses its military might to stymie efforts for an independent Kurdistan in Iraq, Syria and at home. Has allied with Libya to compete with the influence of Egypt and support its claims over territorial waters controlled by Greece. Ongoing disputes with Greece over islands and territorial waters.

The noted conservative economist delivers arguments both fiscal and political against social justice initiatives such as welfare and a federal minimum wage. Spain - tension with regions wanting independence - Basque region as well as Catalonia - although placing authority in regional governmental hands has eased some stress. Many parts of Europe want to support self-determination but in turn, are afraid that allowing it will encourage autonomy movements within. The UK was given as an example - encourages self-determination for Gibraltar and the Falklands but doesn't want it for Scotland and Northern Ireland. The planet's geography is apathetic, indifferent, absolutely heartless and therefore - it rules. Those who proclaim to be its imperators and czars are able to hold those epithets only by being indistinguishable in its camouflage - the fusion thereby making 'geopolitics'. United Kingdom: The nations of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland make up the United Kingdom, an island country in Western Europe who used its naval power to build the world's biggest empire which collapsed after World War 2. About half the size of France, its main European concern was to keep a balance of power and avoid one European country from becoming too powerful and threatening its empire. A country caught between being close to USA based on language and history and Europe based on proximity. Facing a growing independence movement from Scotland following Brexit which could impact its military and naval bases.

He has written for many of the national newspapers including the Times, the Guardian, the Daily Telegraph, and the Sunday Times. Marshall also looks at Greece and how they became seafarers forced by their immovable terrain. Marshal then looks at Turkey and her position as the controller of eastern, western, northern and southern trade. non-fiction book by Tim Marshall The Power of Geography: Ten Maps that Reveal the Future of Our World There is a name for Marshall’s line of thinking: geopolitics. Although the term is often used loosely to mean “international relations”, it refers more precisely to the view that geography – mountains, land bridges, water tables – governs world affairs. Ideas, laws and culture are interesting, geopoliticians argue, but to truly understand politics you must look hard at maps. And when you do, the world reveals itself to be a zero-sum contest in which every neighbour is a potential rival, and success depends on controlling territory, as in the boardgame Risk. In its cynical view of human motives, geopolitics resembles Marxism, just with topography replacing class struggle as the engine of history. Turkey - tension with Greece about the 'Blue Wave' territory as well as preferring non-interference while working at rebuilding it's destiny as a global power. "Democracy" (power/control) for the Islamist authorities while removal/elimination of dissents.

Also, too many instances of pro-British whitewashing of history. The colonial French were vile bastards. But Britain was just a little bit naughty and all is forgiven because we abolished slavery first. Any non-Western atrocities are given plenty of attention, however. Now, in this revelatory new book, Marshall takes us into ten regions that are set to shape global politics and power. Find out why the Earth’s atmosphere is the world’s next battleground; why the fight for the Pacific is just beginning; and why Europe’s next refugee crisis is closer than we think.Tim Marshall’s third book, The Power of Geography,is just as relevant for Economists as books about Adam Smith are. Marshall proves the importance that geography has on international trade and the development of countries around the world. Nations have fought wars and built empires to source resources such as raw materials and even slaves. Since the dawn of trade, geography has been the primary constraint in determining which trade routes grew and which economies developed. Countries with access to seas, rivers, mountain ranges, and even soil types all determine a country’s trade routes and defence concerns. Marshall takes nine countries (and Space) and explains how their geographical makeup determines their geopolitical stories. The book also explores Iran. Walking the reader through the mountains of Iran and its huge landscape it puts Iranian history into perspective due to its mountainous geography. The author of Prisoners of Geography(2015) follows up with an elucidating survey of 10 regions whose demographics, economics, and politics will affect the future of the planet. What even was the “battlefield” by the 90s? The Gulf war portended a much-discussed “revolution in military affairs”, one that promised to replace armoured divisions, heavy artillery and large infantries with precision airstrikes. The Russian military theorist Vladimir Slipchenko noted that strategists’ familiar spatial concepts such as fields, fronts, rears and flanks were losing relevance. With satellites, planes, GPS and now drones, “battlespace” – as strategists today call it – isn’t the wrinkled surface of the Earth, but a flat sheet of graph paper.

Readers familiar with Marshall’s first book, Prisoners of Geography,will not be surprised with the format of each of the ten chapters. Each chapter focuses on a country and starts by describing the key geographical characteristics and then a brief history before explaining how its current territory affects its geopolitics. The books simple format is easy to follow but could be accused of repetition, especially when referring to what keeps Generals awake at nightappears constantly. In the long run, we are creatures of our environments to an almost embarrassing degree, flourishing where circumstances permit and dying where they don’t. “If you look at a map of the tectonic plate boundaries grinding against each other and superimpose the locations of the world’s major ancient civilisations, an astonishingly close relationship reveals itself,” writes Lewis Dartnell in his splendid book, Origins. The relationship is no accident. Plate collisions create mountain ranges and the great rivers that carry their sediment down to the lowlands, enriching the soil. Ancient Greece, Egypt, Persia, Assyria, the Indus valley, Mesoamerica and Rome were all near plate edges. The Fertile Crescent – the rich agricultural zone stretching from Egypt to Iran, where farming, writing and the wheel first emerged – lies over the intersection of three plates. Iran - a theocracy which is stumbling along but managing to survive with the Revolutionary Guard's assistance against the dissidents along with watching the nearby countries and the Islam extremists organizations.p. 158 "The discovery of potentially huge reserves of natural gas in the eastern Mediterranean has complicated what was already a potential source of conflict between Greece and Turkey. Gas fields have been found off Egypt, Israel, Cyprus and Greece. Turkey, anxious that its own waters have not yielded energy, is scouting around in Cypriot and Greek territory, and has signed an agreement with Libya to drill there. Lebanon has a maritime dispute with Israel over part of one gas field, BP, Total, Eni, and Exxon Mobil have all become involved, and Russia is watching the whole scene nervously as its dominant position supplying natural gas to Europe comes under threat." Marshall is not very good at writing about history and it is painful to trudge through those middle sections. He clearly attempts to be "impartial" but because he gives attention to certain areas and skips over others, he falls on his arse. Iran is another country with interesting geopolitical concerns as it needs to access the seas to exports its lucrative oil reserves. Most of its oilfields are towards the country’s south, with some gas fields near the Persian Gulf. Iran exports these commodities to international markets through the Strait of Hormuz. The Strait is tight at its narrowest part. This enables Iran to muscle significant influence in the region as countries like Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Kuwait need the Strait to export their commodities to access the Arabian Sea. Iran uses this chokepoint to gain influence and focuses its navy in the Strait. As a result, part of the geopolitical struggle in the Middle East is not just based on religious divides but just as much on geopolitical power and exporting oil. The more countries could secure vital resources by trade, the less reason they’d have to seize land. Optimists like Thomas Friedman believed countries that were tightly woven into an economic network would forgo starting wars, for fear of losing access to the humming network. Friedman lightheartedly expressed this in 1996 as the Golden Arches Theory of Conflict Prevention: no two countries with McDonald’s will go to war with each other. And he wasn’t far off. Although there have been a handful of conflicts between McDonald’s-having countries, an individual’s chance of dying in a war between states has diminished remarkably since the cold war.

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